James W. Pellegrino, Ph.D., is a liberal arts and sciences distinguished professor and co-director of the Learning Sciences Research Institute at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research and development interests focus on children’s and adults’ thinking and learning and the implications of cognitive research and theory for assessment and instructional practice. He has published over 300 books, chapters and articles in the areas of cognition, instruction and assessment. His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the Institute of Education Sciences, and private foundations. He has served as head of several National Academy of Sciences study committees, including chair of the Study Committee for the Evaluation of the National and State Assessments of Educational Progress, co-chair of the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, and co-chair of the Committee on the Foundations of Assessment, which issued the report “Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment.” Most recently he served as a member of the Committee on Science Learning: Games, Simulations and Education, as a member of the Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New Science Education Standards, as chair of the Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, and co-chair of the Committee on Developing Assessments of Science Proficiency in K-12. He is a past member of the Board on Testing and Assessment of the National Research Council, a lifetime national associate of the National Academy of Sciences, a lifetime member of the National Academy of Education and a lifetime member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has served on the technical advisory committees of several states and organizations such as the College Board and the National Center on Education and the Economy, as well as the TACs of the SBAC, PARCC, DLM and NCSC consortia of states funded by the USDOE.